Boac, officially the Municipality of Boac (Tagalog: Bayan ng Boac; Cebuano: Lungsod sa Boac), is a 1st class municipality and capital of the province of Marinduque, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 57,283 people.
Situated in the western coast of Marinduque Island, the municipality is bordered in the north by the municipality of Mogpog, in the west by the Tayabas Bay and Sibuyan Sea, in the east by the municipality of Torrijos, and in the south by the municipalities of Gasan and Buenavista.
Boac, a heritage town in its own right, is known as one of the main venues of the annual Moriones Festival and is the location of a number of historical sites in Marinduque including the Boac Cathedral fortress church, Casa Real and the Liwasan ng Kalayaan, Laylay Port, and the Battle of Paye site. The municipality is also home to the Marinduque Branch of the National Museum of the Philippines.
Boac is the third largest of the six municipalities of the province of Marinduque, after Santa Cruz and Torrijos. It borders all the municipalities of the province: Mogpog to the north, Santa Cruz to the Northeast, Torrijos to the East, Buenavista to the South and Gasan to the South Southwest.
The municipality is generally hilly, rugged and mountainous in the south and eastern part with thin strips of flat and farm lands and long shoreline in the west. The longest and largest river, Boac River, which gets its source in the mountainous forest in the extreme southwest and spills off to the northern shore of Boac, divides the municipality into two geographical areas: north and south.
Boac River in Barangay Tumapon
The closest town-to-town reference to Boac is the municipality of Mogpog which is approximately 5 kilometers. Boac is connected to Mogpog and Gasan by the Marinduque Circumferential Highway or the Pan-Marinduque Highway. Two bridges connect the north and south area of the municipality: the narrow Tabi Bridge which connects Barangay Tabi and Barangay San Miguel and the said-to-be the longest bridge in the province, Biglang Awa Bridge (186m), which connects Barangay Tampus and Barangay Bantad. A narrow minor road connects Boac and Mogpog via Buliasnin-Nangka Road, and Boac and Gasan via Duyay-Tapuyan Trail. Boac has a total road network of 117.61 kilometers.
Geopolitically, Boac is divided into six zones: Poblacion, Riverside, Ilaya I, Ilaya II, Seaside A and Seaside B. Boac’s geographical center is roughly located between the border of Barangay Binunga and Barangay Can-at.
Boac is home to most of the province’s commercial businesses. Barangays San Miguel, Murallon, and Mercado are the town’s business district where the public market, medium-rise buildings, sports arena and Boac Town Arena, now Moriones Arena are. Meanwhile, Barangay Isok is home to the town’s education district. Marinduque National High School, St. Mary’s College of Marinduque, Don Luis Hidalgo Memorial School, Barangay Day Care Centers, Boac North District Office and the Division of Marinduque DepED Office is in Barangay Isok. The Municipal Building Hall is at Barangay Tampus, adjacent is the Marinduque Museum at Barangay Malusak.
The Marinduque Provincial Capitol is in Barangay Santol near the Dr. Damian Reyes Memorial Hospital (formerly Marinduque Provincial Hospital) and Camp Maximo Abad.
Buenavista, officially the Municipality of Buenavista (Tagalog: Bayan ng Buenavista), is a 4th class municipality in the province of Marinduque, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 26,043 people.
The town was named “Buenavista” by Don Cornelio Sadiua, due to its “good view.” Its former name was Sabang, which is the river that runs through it. The majority of Buenavistans trace their ancestry to the Don Cornelio Sadiua family.
In 1942, the Japanese Imperial forces landed in Buenavista at Patay Ilog before making their way to the capital. Due to its rugged terrain, relative isolation, and fierce pro-American sentiment, Buenavista was the headquarters for the resistance movement. Japanese forces and the Resistance and guerrillas frequently engaged in skirmishes within the town borders. Occupying Japanese forces burned the school and municipal building, after holding captives composed a member from each Buenavista family. Guerrilla forces eventually re-captured the town.
The ‘Libas Ambush, known locally as Pinag Labanan, was a joint guerrilla-Buenavistan effort in which Filipino guerrillas and Buenavistans ambushed and killed a troop of Japanese soldiers. After which the Japanese commandant issued a proclamation that for 1 Japanese soldier killed by the Filipinos in Buenavista, 10 Filipinos will die within a 5-mile radius.
In spite of the Japanese threats the Buenavistans continued their fight against Japanese occupation throughout the war, including rescuing and hiding several the combined Filipino and American military personnel during the war. One such rescue occurred shortly after the fall of Bataan, when the lighthouse keeper found an American seaman hiding among the shoreline rocks. These rescued Filipinos and Americans were clothed, fed and hidden by the Buenavistans, even though they risked execution if the Japanese found out about it.
In 1945, the combined U.S. and Allied Philippine Commonwealth military forces landed at Caigangan beach in Buenavista and attacked from the Japanese Imperial forces in the Battle of Marinduque. The Buenavista Campaign was the first major offensive fought during the Battle of Marinduque. It culminated in a bloody firefight between the Japanese and a joint Allied- Filipino guerrilla offensive. The Japanese, who were headquartered in the Municipal building and elementary school, were soundly defeated.
Buenavista was chosen as the headquarters of the 5th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the U.S. Army Signal Corps due to their record of anti-Japanese actions during the war. The U.S. Army Signal Corps and the 5th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army were quartered in Pablo Pe’s bodega in the town.
The longest-serving mayor was Recaredo Sarmiento. His term was interrupted during World War II. The first Chinese-Filipino mayor was Wilfredo Sadiua Pe.
Gasan, officially the Municipality of Gasan (Tagalog: Bayan ng Gasan), is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Marinduque, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 36,197 people.
The municipality is bounded by the provincial capital, Boac, to the north and east, by Buenavista to the southeast and by the Sibuyan Sea to the south and west. It is the second-oldest municipality in Marinduque, after Boac. Residents of Gasan are called Gaseños.
The Tres Reyes Islands off the coast of Marinduque are under the jurisdiction of Gasan, part of the municipality’s Barangay Pinggan.
In 1942, during World War II, the Japanese Imperial forces landed in Gasan, Marinduque.
In 1945, the combined United States and Allied Philippine Commonwealth forces landed in Gasan, Marinduque. The 5th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was participated in the battle to attacking Japanese forces, during which hundreds of Japanese troops were taken prisoner at the town of Gasan, Marinduque. This became known as the Battle of Marinduque.
In 1957, barrio Banto-anin was renamed as Bukal and barrio Hinubuan was renamed as Antipolo.
Mogpog /mɔːɡˈpoʊɡ/, officially the Municipality of Mogpog (Tagalog: Bayan ng Mogpog) is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Marinduque, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 34,516 people.
In 1942, the Japanese troops occupied the town of Mogpog.
In 1945, during the Second World War, at the liberation of the town of Mogpog, American and Filipino troops fought against the Japanese Imperial forces during the Battle of Marinduque.
Historically, the famous Moriones Festival is said to have originated from Mogpog. Moriones Festival was founded by a Spanish friar, Rev. Father Dionisio Santiago, the first parish priest of Mogpog. This festival is known to be one of the most colorful festivals in Marinduque and the Philippines. It is held in Mogpog and the surrounding areas of Marinduque island.
Santa Cruz, officially the Municipality of Santa Cruz (Tagalog: Bayan ng Santa Cruz), is a 1st class municipality in the province of Marinduque, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 54,692 people.
Republic Act No. 204, approved May 28, 1948, converted the sitios of Angas of the barrio of Tagum, Biga of the barrio of Alobo, Kamandungan of the barrio of Lusok, Kilokilo of the barrio of San Antonio, and Makulapnit of the barrio of Devilla to regular and independent barrios.
In 1953, the sitio of Baguidbirin was converted into a barrio.
Torrijos, officially the Municipality of Torrijos (Tagalog: Bayan ng Torrijos), is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Marinduque, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 30,476 people.
On September 13, 1900, during the Philippine–American War an engagement in Torrijos pitted the forces of Philippine Revolutionary Army Colonel Maximo Abad against the Americans led by Captain Devereux Shields. Abad’s men defeated the American force, it was one of the worst defeats suffered by the Americans during the war. This was known as the Battle of Pulang Lupa which took place in Torrijos. A monument now stands on the mountain where the battle took place, known as Pulang Lupa or “Red Mountain” due to the red soil.
In 1942, the Japanese occupied the town of Torrijos, Marinduque.
In 1945, in the Battle of Marinduque, American and Filipino troops fought in and around the town of Torrijos and Marinduque against the Japanese soldiers during World War II.